8. Rutherford B. Hayes
Hayes oversaw the end of Reconstruction, working to protect black Americans who were being oppressed in the South. He was in favor of the gold standard and ended the “spoils system,” thereby appointing government officials by merit rather than through their political associations. He was a firm follower of the Monroe Doctrine, believing that the US should not intervene in other countries’ business. However, he used federal troops to break up the Great Railroad Strike.